We constructed a lung cancer-specific database housing expression data and clinical data from over 6700 patients in 56 studies. Expression data from 23 genome-wide platforms were carefully processed and quality controlled, whereas clinical data were standardized and rigorously curated. Empowered by this lung cancer database, we created an open access web resource—the Lung Cancer Explorer (LCE), which enables researchers and clinicians to explore these data and perform analyses. Users can perform meta-analyses on LCE to gain a quick overview of the results on tumor vs non-malignant tissue (normal) differential gene expression and expression-survival association. Individual dataset-based survival analysis, comparative analysis, and correlation analysis are also provided with flexible options to allow for customized analyses from the user.
Reverse engineering approaches to infer gene regulatory networks using computational methods are of great importance to annotate gene functionality and identify hub genes. Although various statistical algorithms have been proposed, development of computational tools to integrate results from different methods and user-friendly online tools is still lagging.
We developed a web server that efficiently constructs gene networks from expression data. It allows the user to use ten different network construction methods (such as partial correlation-, likelihood-, Bayesian- and mutual information-based methods) and integrates the resulting networks from multiple methods. Hub gene information, if available, can be incorporated to enhance performance.
GeNeCK is an efficient and easy-to-use web application for gene regulatory network construction. It can be accessed at http://lce.biohpc.swmed.edu/geneck.
Prediction of disease prognosis is essential for improving cancer patient care. Previously, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using quantitative morphological features of tumor pathology images to predict the prognosis of lung cancer patients in a single cohort. In this study, we developed and validated a pathology image-based predictive model for the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients across multiple independent cohorts. Using quantitative pathology image analysis, we extracted morphological features from H&E stained sections of formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues. A prediction model for patient prognosis was developed using tumor tissue pathology images from a cohort of 91 stage I lung ADC patients from the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), and validated in ADC patients from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), and the UT Special Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) cohort. The morphological features that are associated with patient survival in the training dataset from the CAMS cohort were used to develop a prognostic model, which was independently validated in both the NLST (n = 185) and the SPORE (n = 111) cohorts. The association between predicted risk and overall survival was significant for both the NLST (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 2.20, pv = 0.01) and the SPORE cohorts (HR = 2.15 and pv = 0.044), respectively, after adjusting for key clinical variables. Furthermore, the model also predicted the prognosis of patients with stage I ADC in both the NLST (n = 123, pv = 0.0089) and SPORE (n = 68, pv = 0.032) cohorts. The results indicate that the pathology image-based model predicts the prognosis of ADC patients across independent cohorts.
Digital pathology imaging of tumor tissues, which captures histological details in high resolution, is fast becoming a routine clinical procedure. Recent developments in deep-learning methods have enabled the identification, characterization, and classification of individual cells from pathology images analysis at a large scale. This creates new opportunities to study the spatial patterns of and interactions among different types of cells. Reliable statistical approaches to modeling such spatial patterns and interactions can provide insight into tumor progression and shed light on the biological mechanisms of cancer. In this article, we consider the problem of modeling a pathology image with irregular locations of three different types of cells: lymphocyte, stromal, and tumor cells. We propose a novel Bayesian hierarchical model, which incorporates a hidden Potts model to project the irregularly distributed cells to a square lattice and a Markov random field prior model to identify regions in a heterogeneous pathology image. The model allows us to quantify the interactions between different types of cells, some of which are clinically meaningful. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques, combined with a double Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, in order to simulate samples approximately from a distribution with an intractable normalizing constant. The proposed model was applied to the pathology images of 205∂ lung cancer patients from the National Lung Screening trial, and the results show that the interaction strength between tumor and stromal cells predicts patient prognosis (P = 0.005). This statistical methodology provides a new perspective for understanding the role of cell-cell interactions in cancer progression.
SCLC accounts for almost 15% of lung cancer cases in the United States. Nomogram prognostic models could greatly facilitate risk stratification and treatment planning, as well as more refined enrollment criteria for clinical trials. We developed and validated a new nomogram prognostic model for SCLC patients using a large SCLC patient cohort from the National Cancer Database (NCDB).
Clinical data for 24,680 SCLC patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2011 were used to develop the nomogram prognostic model. The model was then validated using an independent cohort of 9700 SCLC patients diagnosed from 2012 to 2013. The prognostic performance was evaluated using p value, concordance index and integrated area under the (time-dependent receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUC).
The following variables were contained in the final prognostic model: age, sex, race, ethnicity, Charlson/Deyo score, TNM stage (assigned according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] eighth edition), treatment type (combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy), and laterality. The model was validated in an independent testing group with a concordance index of 0.722 ± 0.004 and an integrated area under the curve of 0.79. The nomogram model has a significantly higher prognostic accuracy than previously developed models, including the AJCC eighth edition TNM-staging system. We implemented the proposed nomogram and four previously published nomograms in an online webserver.
We developed a nomogram prognostic model for SCLC patients, and validated the model using an independent patient cohort. The nomogram performs better than earlier models, including models using AJCC staging. Previous
Pathology slide images capture tumor histomorphological details in high resolution. However, manual detection and characterization of tumor regions in pathology slides is labor intensive and subjective. Using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN), we developed an automated tumor region recognition system for lung cancer pathology slides. From the identified regions, we extracted 22 well-defined tumor shape features and found that 15 of them were significantly associated with patient survival outcome in lung adenocarcinoma patients from the National Lung Screening Trial. A tumor shape-based prognostic model was developed and validated in an independent patient cohort (n=389). The predicted high-risk group had significantly worse survival than the low-risk group (p value = 0.0029). Predicted risk group serves as an independent prognostic factor (high-risk vs. low-risk, hazard ratio = 2.25, 95% CI 1.34-3.77, p value = 0.0022) after adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, and stage. This study provides new insights into the relationship between tumor shape and patient prognosis.
Allelic loss of the autophagy gene, beclin 1/BECN1, increases the risk of patients developing aggressive, including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive, breast cancers; however, it is not known whether autophagy induction may be beneficial in preventing HER2-positive breast tumor growth. We explored the regulation of autophagy in breast cancer cells by HER2 in vitro and the effects of genetic and pharmacological strategies to increase autophagy on HER2-driven breast cancer growth in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that HER2 interacts with Beclin 1 in breast cancer cells and inhibits autophagy. Mice with increased basal autophagy due to a genetically engineered mutation in Becn1 are protected from HER2-driven mammary tumorigenesis, and HER2 fails to inhibit autophagy in primary cells derived from these mice. Moreover, treatment of mice with HER2-positive human breast cancer xenografts with the Tat-Beclin 1 autophagy-inducing peptide inhibits tumor growth as effectively as a clinically used HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). This inhibition of tumor growth is associated with a robust induction of autophagy, a disruption of HER2/Beclin 1 binding, and a transcriptional signature in the tumors distinct from that observed with HER2 TKI treatment. Taken together, these findings indicate that the HER2-mediated inhibition of Beclin 1 and autophagy likely contributes to HER2-mediated tumorigenesis and that strategies to block HER2/Beclin 1 binding and/or increase autophagy may represent a new therapeutic approach for HER2-positive breast cancers.
Pathological angiogenesis has been identified in many malignancies as a potential prognostic factor and target for therapy. In most cases, angiogenic analysis is based on the measurement of microvessel density (MVD) detected by immunostaining of CD31 or CD34. However, most retrievable public data is generally composed of Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E)-stained pathology images, for which is difficult to get the corresponding immunohistochemistry images. The role of microvessels in H&E stained images has not been widely studied due to their complexity and heterogeneity. Furthermore, identifying microvessels manually for study is a labor-intensive task for pathologists, with high inter- and intra-observer variation. Therefore, it is important to develop automated microvessel-detection algorithms in H&E stained pathology images for clinical association analysis.
In the literature, inconsistent associations between the primary locations of lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) with patient prognosis have been reported, due to varying definitions for central and peripheral locations. In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics and prognoses of ADCs located in the main bronchus.
A total of 397,189 lung ADCs registered from 2004 to 2013 in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were extracted and divided into main bronchus-located ADCs (2.5%, N = 10,111) and non-main bronchus ADCs (97.5%, N = 387,078). The ADCs located in the main bronchus and those not in the main bronchus were compared in terms of patient prognosis, lymph node involvement, distant metastases and other clinical features, including rate of curative-intent resection, histologic grade, and stage.
ADCs located in the main bronchus had significantly worse patient survival than those in the non-main bronchus, both for all patients (HR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.78–1.86) and for those undergoing curative-intent resection (HR = 2.49, 95% CI 2.23–2.78). Furthermore, ADCs located in the main bronchus had a significantly higher rate of lymph node involvement and distant metastasis than those not in the main bronchus, when stratified by tumor size (trend test, p < e−16). Multivariate analysis of overall survival showed that main bronchus location is a prognostic factor (HR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.08–1.23) independent of other clinical factors.
Main bronchus location is an independent predictor for metastasis and worse outcomes irrespective of stage and treatment. Tumor primary location might be considered in prognostication and treatment planning.
Co-expression analysis is widely used to predict gene function and to identify functionally related gene sets. However, co-expression analysis using human cancer transcriptomic data is confounded by somatic copy number alterations (SCNA), which produce co-expression signatures based on physical proximity rather than biological function. To better understand gene-gene co-expression based on biological regulation but not SCNA, we describe a method termed "Genomic Regression Analysis of Coordinated Expression" (GRACE) to adjust for the effect of SCNA in co-expression analysis. The results from analyses of TCGA, CCLE, and NCI60 data sets show that GRACE can improve our understanding of how a transcriptional network is re-wired in cancer. A user-friendly web database populated with data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is provided to allow customized query.
Gaussian graphical models have been widely used to construct gene regulatory networks from gene expression data. Most existing methods for Gaussian graphical models are designed to model homogeneous data, assuming a single Gaussian distribution. In practice, however, data may consist of gene expression studies with unknown confounding factors, such as study cohort, microarray platforms, experimental batches, which produce heterogeneous data, and hence lead to false positive edges or low detection power in resulting network, due to those unknown factors. To overcome this problem and improve the performance in constructing gene networks, we propose a two-stage approach to construct a gene network from heterogeneous data. The first stage is to perform a clustering analysis in order to assign samples to a few clusters where the samples in each cluster are approximately homogeneous, and the second stage is to conduct an integrative analysis of networks from each cluster. In particular, we first apply a model-based clustering method using the singular value decomposition for high-dimensional data, and then integrate the networks from each cluster using the integrative $\psi$-learning method. The proposed method is based on an equivalent measure of partial correlation coefficients in Gaussian graphical models, which is computed with a reduced conditional set and thus it is useful for high-dimensional data. We compare the proposed two-stage learning approach with some existing methods in various simulation settings, and demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method. Finally, it is applied to integrate multiple gene expression studies of lung adenocarcinoma to identify potential therapeutic targets and treatment biomarkers.
We report the results of a DREAM challenge designed to predict relative genetic essentialities based on a novel dataset testing 98,000 shRNAs against 149 molecularly characterized cancer cell lines. We analyzed the results of over 3,000 submissions over a period of 4 months. We found that algorithms combining essentiality data across multiple genes demonstrated increased accuracy; gene expression was the most informative molecular data type; the identity of the gene being predicted was far more important than the modeling strategy; well-predicted genes and selected molecular features showed enrichment in functional categories; and frequently selected expression features correlated with survival in primary tumors. This study establishes benchmarks for gene essentiality prediction, presents a community resource for future comparison with this benchmark, and provides insights into factors influencing the ability to predict gene essentiality from functional genetic screens. This study also demonstrates the value of releasing pre-publication data publicly to engage the community in an open research collaboration.
The new 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/International Union for Cancer Control (UICC) lung cancer staging system was developed and internally validated using the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) database, but external validation is needed. The goal of this study is to validate the discriminatory ability and prognostic performance of this new staging system in a larger, independent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohort with greater emphasis on North American patients.
A total of 858,909 NSCLC cases with one malignant primary tumor collected from 2004 to 2013 in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were analyzed. The primary coding guidelines of the Collaborative Staging Manual and Coding Instructions for the new 8th edition AJCC/UICC lung cancer staging system was used to define the new T, M and TNM stages for all patients in the database. Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression models and time-dependent receiver operating characteristics were used to compare the discriminatory ability and prognostic performance of the 7th and the revised 8th T, M categories and overall stages.
We demonstrated that the 8th staging system provides better discriminatory ability than the 7th staging system and predicts prognosis for NSCLC patients using the NCDB. There were significant survival differences between adjacent groups defined by both clinical staging and pathologic staging systems. These staging parameters were significantly associated with survival after adjusting for other factors.
The updated T, M, and overall TNM stage of the 8th staging system show improvement compared to the 7th edition in discriminatory ability between adjacent subgroups and are independent predictors for prognosis.
Rank aggregation (RA), the process of combining multiple ranked lists into a single ranking, has played an important role in integrating information from individual genomic studies that address the same biological question. In previous research, attention has been focused on aggregating full lists. However, partial and/or top ranked lists are prevalent because of the great heterogeneity of genomic studies and limited resources for follow-up investigation. To be able to handle such lists, some ad hoc adjustments have been suggested in the past, but how RA methods perform on them (after the adjustments) has never been fully evaluated. In this article, a systematic framework is proposed to define different situations that may occur based on the nature of individually ranked lists. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted to examine the performance characteristics of a collection of existing RA methods that are suitable for genomic applications under various settings simulated to mimic practical situations. A non-small cell lung cancer data example is provided for further comparison. Based on our numerical results, general guidelines about which methods perform the best/worst, and under what c
Clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) screens are usually implemented in cultured cells to identify genes with critical functions. Although several methods have been developed or adapted to analyze CRISPR screening data, no single specific algorithm has gained popularity. Thus, rigorous procedures are needed to overcome the shortcomings of existing algorithms.
We developed a Permutation-Based Non-Parametric Analysis (PBNPA) algorithm, which computes p-values at the gene level by permuting sgRNA labels, and thus it avoids restrictive distributional assumptions. Although PBNPA is designed to analyze CRISPR data, it can also be applied to analyze genetic screens implemented with siRNAs or shRNAs and drug screens.
We compared the performance of PBNPA with competing methods on simulated data as well as on real data. PBNPA outperformed recent methods designed for CRISPR screen analysis, as well as methods used for analyzing other functional genomics screens, in terms of Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves and False Discovery Rate (FDR) control for simulated data under various settings. Remarkably, the PBNPA algorithm showed better consistency and FDR control on published real data as well.
PBNPA yields more consistent and reliable results than its competitors, especially when the data quality is low. R package of PBNPA is available at: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/PBNPA/ .
Extraction of cell nuclei from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histopathological images is an essential preprocessing step in computerized image analysis for disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis. We present an automated cell nuclei segmentation approach that works with H&E-stained images. A color deconvolution algorithm was first applied to the image to get the hematoxylin channel. Using a morphological operation and thresholding technique on the hematoxylin channel image, candidate target nuclei and background regions were detected, which were then used as markers for a marker-controlled watershed transform segmentation algorithm. Moreover, postprocessing was conducted to split the touching nuclei. For each segmented region from the previous steps, the regional maximum value positions were identified as potential nuclei centers. These maximum values were further grouped into [Formula: see text]-clusters, and the locations within each cluster were connected with the minimum spanning tree technique. Then, these connected positions were utilized as new markers for a watershed segmentation approach. The final number of nuclei at each region was determined by minimizing an objective function that iterated all of the possible [Formula: see text]-values. The proposed method was applied to the pathological images of the tumor tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas study. Experimental results show that the proposed method can lead to promising results in terms of segmentation accuracy and separation of touching nuclei.
Nowadays, many biological data are acquired via images. In this article, we study the pathological images scanned from 205 patients with lung cancer with the goal to find out the relationship between the survival time and the spatial distribution of different types of cells, including lymphocyte, stroma, and tumor cells. Toward this goal, we model the spatial distribution of different types of cells using a modified Potts model for which the parameters represent interactions between different types of cells and estimate the parameters of the Potts model using the double Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. The double Metropolis-Hastings algorithm allows us to simulate samples approximately from a distribution with an intractable normalizing constant. Our numerical results indicate that the spatial interaction between the lymphocyte and tumor cells is significantly associated with the patient's survival time, and it can be used together with the cell count information to predict the survival of the patients.
Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) aims at identifying essential pathways, or more generally, sets of biologically related genes that are involved in complex human diseases. In the past, many studies have shown that GSEA is a very useful bioinformatics tool that plays critical roles in the innovation of disease prevention and intervention strategies. Despite its tremendous success, it is striking that conclusions of GSEA drawn from isolated studies are often sparse, and different studies may lead to inconsistent and sometimes contradictory results. Further, in the wake of next generation sequencing technologies, it has been made possible to measure genome-wide isoform-specific expression levels, calling for innovations that can utilize the unprecedented resolution. Currently, enormous amounts of data have been created from various RNA-seq experiments. All these give rise to a pressing need for developing integrative methods that allow for explicit utilization of isoform-specific expression, to combine multiple enrichment studies, in order to enhance the power, reproducibility, and interpretability of the analysis. We develop and evaluate integrative GSEA methods, based on two-stage procedures, which, for the first time, allow statistically efficient use of isoform-specific expression from multiple RNA-seq experiments. Through simulation and real data analysis, we show that our methods can greatly improve the performance in identifying essential gene sets compared to existing methods that can only use gene-level expression.
The construction of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is an essential component of biomedical research to determine disease mechanisms and identify treatment targets. Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) have been widely used for constructing GRNs by inferring conditional dependence among a set of gene expressions. In practice, GRNs obtained by the analysis of a single data set may not be reliable due to sample limitations. Therefore, it is important to integrate multiple data sets from comparable studies to improve the construction of a GRN. In this article, we introduce an equivalent measure of partial correlation coefficients in GGMs and then extend the method to construct a GRN by combining the equivalent measures from different sources. Furthermore, we develop a method for multiple data sets with a natural missing mechanism to accommodate the differences among different platforms in multiple sources of data. Simulation results show that this integrative analysis outperforms the standard methods and can detect hub genes in the true network. The proposed integrative method was applied to 12 lung adenocarcinoma data sets collected from different studies. The constructed network is consistent with the current biological knowledge and reveals new insights about lung adenocarcinoma.
Gene regulatory networks reveal how genes work together to carry out their biological functions. Reconstructions of gene networks from gene expression data greatly facilitate our understanding of underlying biological mechanisms and provide new opportunities for biomarker and drug discoveries. In gene networks, a gene that has many interactions with other genes is called a hub gene, which usually plays an essential role in gene regulation and biological processes. In this study, we developed a method for reconstructing gene networks using a partial correlation-based approach that incorporates prior information about hub genes. Through simulation studies and two real-data examples, we compare the performance in estimating the network structures between the existing methods and the proposed method.
In simulation studies, we show that the proposed strategy reduces errors in estimating network structures compared to the existing methods. When applied to Escherichia coli, the regulation network constructed by our proposed ESPACE method is more consistent with current biological knowledge than the SPACE method. Furthermore, application of the proposed method in lung cancer has identified hub genes whose mRNA expression predicts cancer progress and patient response to treatment.
We have demonstrated that incorporating hub gene information in estimating network structures can improve the performance of the existing methods.
In recent years, next generation sequencing (NGS) has gradually replaced microarray as the major platform in measuring gene expressions. Compared to microarray, NGS has many advantages, such as less noise and higher throughput. However, the discreteness of NGS data also challenges the existing statistical methodology. In particular, there still lacks an appropriate statistical method for reconstructing gene regulatory networks using NGS data in the literature. The existing local Poisson graphical model method is not consistent and can only infer certain local structures of the network. In this article, we propose a random effect model-based transformation to continuize NGS data and then we transform the continuized data to Gaussian via a semiparametric transformation and apply an equivalent partial correlation selection method to reconstruct gene regulatory networks. The proposed method is consistent. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method can lead to much more accurate inference of gene regulatory networks than the local Poisson graphical model and other existing methods. The proposed data-continuized transformation fills the theoretical gap for how to transform discrete data to continuous data and facilitates NGS data analysis. The proposed data-continuized transformation also makes it feasible to integrate different types of data, such as microarray and RNA-seq data, in reconstruction of gene regulatory networks.
RNA-binding proteins play important roles in the various stages of RNA maturation through binding to its target RNAs. Cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-Seq) has made it possible to identify the targeting sites of RNA-binding proteins in various cell culture systems and tissue types on a genome-wide scale. Several Hidden Markov model-based (HMM) approaches have been suggested to identify protein-RNA binding sites from CLIP-Seq datasets. In this chapter, we describe how HMM can be applied to analyze CLIP-Seq datasets, including the bioinformatics preprocessing steps to extract count information from the sequencing data before HMM and the downstream analysis steps following peak-calling.
Pathological examination of histopathological slides is a routine clinical procedure for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Although the classification of lung cancer has been updated to become more specific, only a small subset of the total morphological features are taken into consideration. The vast majority of the detailed morphological features of tumor tissues, particularly tumor cells' surrounding microenvironment, are not fully analyzed. The heterogeneity of tumor cells and close interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironments are closely related to tumor development and progression. The goal of this study is to develop morphological feature-based prediction models for the prognosis of patients with lung cancer.
We developed objective and quantitative computational approaches to analyze the morphological features of pathological images for patients with NSCLC. Tissue pathological images were analyzed for 523 patients with adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 511 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from The Cancer Genome Atlas lung cancer cohorts. The features extracted from the pathological images were used to develop statistical models that predict patients' survival outcomes in ADC and SCC, respectively.
We extracted 943 morphological features from pathological images of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue and identified morphological features that are significantly associated with prognosis in ADC and SCC, respectively. Statistical models based on these extracted features stratified NSCLC patients into high-risk and low-risk groups. The models were developed from training sets and validated in independent testing sets: a predicted high-risk group versus a predicted low-risk group (for patients with ADC: hazard ratio = 2.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-4.91, p = 0.024; for patients with SCC: hazard ratio = 2.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-4.27, p = 0.017) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, and pathologic tumor stage.
The results suggest that the quantitative morphological features of tumor pathological images predict prognosis in patients with lung cancer.
Diffuse gliomas, grades II and III, hereafter called lower-grade gliomas (LGG), have variable, difficult to predict clinical courses, resulting in multiple studies to identify prognostic biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to assess expression or methylation of the homeobox family gene SHOX2 as independent markers for LGG survival.
We downloaded publically available glioma datasets for gene expression and methylation. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (LGG, n=516) was used as a training set, and three other expression datasets (n=308) and three other methylation datasets (n=320), were used for validation. We performed Kaplan-Meier survival curves and univariate and multivariate Cox regression model analyses.
SHOX2 expression and gene body methylation varied among LGG patients and highly significantly predicted poor overall survival. While they were tightly correlated, SHOX2 expression appeared more potent as a prognostic marker and was used for most further studies. The SHOX2 prognostic roles were maintained after analyses by histology subtypes or tumor grade. We found that the combination of SHOX2 expression and IDH genotype status identified a subset of LGG patients with IDH wild-type (IDHwt) and low SHOX2 expression with considerably favorable survival. We further investigated the combination of SHOX2 with other known clinically relevant markers of LGG (TERT expression, 1p/19q chromosome co-deletion, MGMT methylation, ATRX mutation and NES expression). When combined with SHOX2 expression, we identified subsets of LGG patients with significantly favorable survival outcomes, especially in the subgroup with worse prognosis for each individual marker. Finally, multivariate analysis demonstrated that SHOX2 was a potent independent survival marker.
We have identified that SHOX2 expression or methylation are potent independent prognostic indicators for predicting LGG patient survival, and have potential to identify an important subset of LGG patients with IDHwt status with significantly better overall survival. The combination of IDH or other relevant markers with SHOX2 identified LGG subsets with significantly different survival outcomes, and further understanding of these subsets may benefit therapeutic target identification and therapy selections for glioma patients.
Intradialytic hypertension (IH) occurs frequently in some hemodialysis patients and increases mortality risk. We simultaneously compared pre-dialysis, post-dialysis and changes in extracellular volume and hemodynamics in recurrent IH patients and controls.
We performed a case-control study among prevalent hemodialysis patients with recurrent IH and hypertensive hemodialysis controls. We used bioimpedance spectroscopy and impedance cardiography to compare pre-dialysis, post-dialysis, and intradialytic change in total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW), as well as cardiac index (CI) and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI).
The ECW/TBW was 0.453 (0.05) pre-dialysis and 0.427 (0.04) post-dialysis in controls vs. 0.478 (0.03) and 0.461 (0.03) in IH patients (p=0.01 post-dialysis). The ECW/TBW change was -0.027 (0.03) in controls and -0.013 (0.02) in IH patients (p=0.1). In controls, pre- and post-dialysis TPRI were 3254 (994) and 2469 (529) dynes/sec/cm2/m2 vs. 2983 (747) and 3408 (980) dynes/sec/cm2/m2 in IH patients (p=0.002 post-dialysis). There were between-group differences in TPRI change (0=0.0001), but not CI (p=0.09).
Recurrent intradialytic hypertension is associated with higher post-dialysis extracellular volume and TPRI. Intradialytic TPRI surges account for the vasoconstrictive state post-dialysis, but intradialytic fluid shifts may contribute to post-hemodialysis volume expansion.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects millions world-wide. While anti-TNF treatment is widely used to reduce disease progression, treatment fails in ∼one-third of patients. No biomarker currently exists that identifies non-responders before treatment. A rigorous community-based assessment of the utility of SNP data for predicting anti-TNF treatment efficacy in RA patients was performed in the context of a DREAM Challenge (http://www.synapse.org/RA_Challenge). An open challenge framework enabled the comparative evaluation of predictions developed by 73 research groups using the most comprehensive available data and covering a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling methodologies. Despite a significant genetic heritability estimate of treatment non-response trait (h2=0.18, P value=0.02), no significant genetic contribution to prediction accuracy is observed. Results formally confirm the expectations of the rheumatology community that SNP information does not significantly improve predictive performance relative to standard clinical traits, thereby justifying a refocusing of future efforts on collection of other data.
Intradialytic hypertension (IH) patients have higher mortality risk than other hemodialysis patients and have been shown to have higher ambulatory blood pressure (BP). We hypothesized that interdialytic BP patterns would differ in IH patients and hypertensive hemodialysis controls.
We consecutively screened hemodialysis patients at our university-affiliated units. Based on pre and post-HD BP measurements during the prior 2 week period, we identified IH patients and demographically matched hemodialysis controls. We measured ambulatory interdialytic BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, and intradialytic endothelin-1 (ET-1). Using linear mixed-models, we compared BP slopes during the following intervals: 1-24 hours post-dialysis, 25-44 hours post-dialysis, and 1-44 hours post-dialysis.
There were 25 case subjects with IH and 24 controls. Systolic BP during hours 1-44, 1-24, and 25-44 were 143.1 (16.5), 138.0 (21.2), and 150.8 (22.3) mmHg in controls. For IH subjects, they were 155.4 (14.2), 152.7 (22.8), and 156.5 (20.8) mmHg (p=0.008, 0.02, 0.4). In controls, the slopes were +0.6, +0.6, and +0.4 mmHg/hr. In IH subjects, they were +0.1, -0.3, and +0.3 mmHg/hr. The IH 1-24 hour slope differed from the IH 25-44 hour slope (p=0.001) and the control 1-24 hour slope (p=0.002). The change in ET-1 from pre to post dialysis was 0.5 (1.5) pg/mL in controls and 1.0 (2.3) pg/mL in IH patients (p=0.4). In a univariate model, there was an association with screening BP and BP slope (p=0.002 for controls and p=0.1 for IH patients).
Interdialytic BP patterns differ in IH patients and hemodialysis controls. The elevated post dialysis blood pressure persists for many hours in IH patients contributing to the overall increased BP burden.
Identifying accurate biomarkers of cognitive decline is essential for advancing early diagnosis and prevention therapies in Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's disease DREAM Challenge was designed as a computational crowdsourced project to benchmark the current state-of-the-art in predicting cognitive outcomes in Alzheimer's disease based on high dimensional, publicly available genetic and structural imaging data. This meta-analysis failed to identify a meaningful predictor developed from either data modality, suggesting that alternate approaches should be considered for prediction of cognitive performance.
Venous oxygenation (Yv ) is an important index of brain physiology and may be indicative of brain diseases. A T2 -relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) MRI technique was recently developed to measure Yv . A multisite evaluation of this technique would be an important step toward broader availability and potential clinical utilizations of Yv measures.
TRUST MRI was performed on a total of 250 healthy subjects, 125 from the developer's site and 25 each from five other sites. All sites were equipped with a 3 Tesla (T) MRI of the same vendor. The estimated Yv and the standard error (SE) of the estimation εYv were compared across sites.
The averaged Yv and εYv across six sites were 61.1% ± 1.4% and 1.3% ± 0.2%, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the estimated Yv was dependent on age (P = 0.009) but not on performance site. In contrast, the SE of the Yv estimation was site-dependent (P = 0.024) but was less than 1.5%. Further analysis revealed that εYv was positively associated with the amount of subject motion (P < 0.001) but negatively associated with blood signal intensity (P < 0.001).
This work suggests that TRUST MRI can yield equivalent results of Yv estimation across different sites.
Histone lysine demethylase KDM4/JMJD2s are overexpressed in many human tumors including prostate cancer (PCa). KDM4s are co-activators of androgen receptor (AR) and are thus potential therapeutic targets. Yet to date few KDM4 inhibitors that have anti-prostate tumor activity in vivo have been developed. Here, we report the anti-tumor growth effect and molecular mechanisms of three novel KDM4 inhibitors (A1, I9, and B3). These inhibitors repressed the transcription of both AR and BMYB-regulated genes. Compound B3 is highly selective for a variety of cancer cell lines including PC3 cells that lack AR. B3 inhibited the in vivo growth of tumors derived from PC3 cells and ex vivo human PCa explants. We identified a novel mechanism by which KDM4B activates the transcription of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). B3 blocked the binding of KDM4B to the PLK1 promoter. Our studies suggest a potential mechanism-based therapeutic strategy for PCa and tumors with elevated KDM4B/PLK1 expression.
The ability to computationally predict the effects of toxic compounds on humans could help address the deficiencies of current chemical safety testing. Here, we report the results from a community-based DREAM challenge to predict toxicities of environmental compounds with potential adverse health effects for human populations. We measured the cytotoxicity of 156 compounds in 884 lymphoblastoid cell lines for which genotype and transcriptional data are available as part of the Tox21 1000 Genomes Project. The challenge participants developed algorithms to predict interindividual variability of toxic response from genomic profiles and population-level cytotoxicity data from structural attributes of the compounds. 179 submitted predictions were evaluated against an experimental data set to which participants were blinded. Individual cytotoxicity predictions were better than random, with modest correlations (Pearson's r < 0.28), consistent with complex trait genomic prediction. In contrast, predictions of population-level response to different compounds were higher (r < 0.66). The results highlight the possibility of predicting health risks associated with unknown compounds, although risk estimation accuracy remains suboptimal.
Lung cancer is among the major causes of cancer deaths, and the survival rate of lung cancer patients is extremely low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the gene CDKN3 is related to neoplasia, but in the literature severe controversy exists over whether it is involved in cancer progression or, conversely, tumor inhibition. In this study, we investigated the expression of CDKN3 and its association with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using datasets in Lung Cancer Explorer (LCE; http://qbrc.swmed.edu/lce/). We found that CDKN3 was up-regulated in ADC and SCC compared to normal tissues. We also found that CDKN3 was expressed at a higher level in SCC than in ADC, which was further validated through meta-analysis (coefficient = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.50-2.67, P < 0.0001). In addition, based on meta-analysis for the prognostic value of CDKN3, we found that higher CDKN3 expression was associated with poorer survival outcomes in ADC (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.39-1.96, P < 0.0001), but not in SCC (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.84-1.44, P = 0.494). Our findings indicate that CDKN3 may be a prognostic marker in ADC, though the detailed mechanism is yet to be revealed.
Synonymous codons are not used with equal frequencies in most genomes. Codon usage has been proposed to play a role in regulating translation kinetics and co-translational protein folding. The relationship between codon usage and protein structures and the in vivo role of codon usage in eukaryotic protein folding is not clear. Here, we show that there is a strong codon usage bias in the filamentous fungus Neurospora. Importantly, we found genome-wide correlations between codon choices and predicted protein secondary structures: Nonoptimal codons are preferentially used in intrinsically disordered regions, and more optimal codons are used in structured domains. The functional importance of such correlations in vivo was confirmed by structure-based codon manipulation of codons in the Neurospora circadian clock gene frequency (frq). The codon optimization of the predicted disordered, but not well-structured regions of FRQ impairs clock function and altered FRQ structures. Furthermore, the correlations between codon usage and protein disorder tendency are conserved in other eukaryotes. Together, these results suggest that codon choices and protein structures co-evolve to ensure proper protein folding in eukaryotic organisms.
The past decades have witnessed a surge of discoveries revealing RNA regulation as a central player in cellular processes. RNAs are regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) at all post-transcriptional stages, including splicing, transportation, stabilization and translation. Defects in the functions of these RBPs underlie a broad spectrum of human pathologies. Systematic identification of RBP functional targets is among the key biomedical research questions and provides a new direction for drug discovery. The advent of cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (genome-wide CLIP) technology has recently enabled the investigation of genome-wide RBP-RNA binding at single base-pair resolution. This technology has evolved through the development of three distinct versions: HITS-CLIP, PAR-CLIP and iCLIP. Meanwhile, numerous bioinformatics pipelines for handling the genome-wide CLIP data have also been developed. In this review, we discuss the genome-wide CLIP technology and focus on bioinformatics analysis. Specifically, we compare the strengths and weaknesses, as well as the scopes, of various bioinformatics tools. To assist readers in choosing optimal procedures for their analysis, we also review experimental design and procedures that affect bioinformatics analyses.
We study the estimation of a Gaussian graphical model whose dependent structures are partially identified. In a Gaussian graphical model, an off-diagonal zero entry in the concentration matrix (the inverse covariance matrix) implies the conditional independence of two corresponding variables, given all other variables. A number of methods have been proposed to estimate a sparse large-scale Gaussian graphical model or, equivalently, a sparse large-scale concentration matrix. In practice, the graph structure to be estimated is often partially identified by other sources or a pre-screening. In this paper, we propose a simple modification of existing methods to take into account this information in the estimation. We show that the partially identified dependent structure reduces the error in estimating the dependent structure. We apply the proposed method to estimating the gene regulatory network from lung cancer data, where protein-protein interactions are partially identified from the human protein reference database. The application shows that proposed method identified many important cancer genes as hub genes in the constructed lung cancer network. In addition, we validated the prognostic importance of a newly identified cancer gene, PTPN13, in four independent lung cancer datasets. The results indicate that the proposed method could facilitate studying underlying lung cancer mechanisms and identifying reliable biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis.
Both BRCA1 and Beclin 1 (BECN1) are tumor suppressor genes, which are in close proximity on the human chromosome 17q21 breast cancer tumor susceptibility locus and are often concurrently deleted. However, their importance in sporadic human breast cancer is not known. To interrogate the effects of BECN1 and BRCA1 in breast cancer, we studied their mRNA expression patterns in breast cancer patients from two large datasets: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n=1067) and the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) (n=1992). In both datasets, low expression of BECN1 was more common in HER2-enriched and basal-like (mostly triple-negative) breast cancers compared to luminal A/B intrinsic tumor subtypes, and was also strongly associated with TP53 mutations and advanced tumor grade. In contrast, there was no significant association between low BRCA1 expression and HER2-enriched or basal-like subtypes, TP53 mutations or tumor grade. In addition, low expression of BECN1 (but not low BRCA1) was associated with poor prognosis, and BECN1 (but not BRCA1) expression was an independent predictor of survival. These findings suggest that decreased mRNA expression of the autophagy gene BECN1 may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of HER2-enriched, basal-like, and TP53 mutant breast cancers.
High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) screening has opened up a path to investigating functional genomics in a genome-wide pattern. However, such studies are often restricted to assays that have a single readout format. Recently, advanced image technologies have been coupled with high-throughput RNAi screening to develop high-content screening, in which one or more cell image(s), instead of a single readout, were generated from each well. This image-based high-content screening technology has led to genome-wide functional annotation in a wider spectrum of biological research studies, as well as in drug and target discovery, so that complex cellular phenotypes can be measured in a multiparametric format. Despite these advances, data analysis and visualization tools are still largely lacking for these types of experiments. Therefore, we developed iScreen (image-Based High-content RNAi Screening Analysis Tool), an R package for the statistical modeling and visualization of image-based high-content RNAi screening. Two case studies were used to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of the iScreen package. iScreen is available for download on CRAN (http://cran.cnr.berkeley.edu/web/packages/iScreen/index.html). The user manual is also available as a supplementary document.
While it is known that specific nuclei of the brain, for example hypothalamus, contain glucose-sensing neurons thus their activity is affected by blood glucose level, the effect of glucose modulation on whole-brain metabolism is not completely understood. Several recent reports have elucidated the long-term impact of caloric restriction on the brain, showing that animals under caloric restriction had enhanced rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle flux accompanied by extended life span. However, acute effect of postprandial blood glucose increase has not been addressed in detail, partly due to a scarcity and complexity of measurement techniques. In this study, using a recently developed noninvasive MR technique, we measured dynamic changes in global cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (CMRO2 ) following a 50 g glucose ingestion (N = 10). A time dependent decrease in CMRO2 was observed, which was accompanied by a reduction in oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) with unaltered cerebral blood flow (CBF). At 40 min post-ingestion, the amount of CMRO2 reduction was 7.8 ± 1.6%. A control study without glucose ingestion was performed (N = 10), which revealed no changes in CMRO2 , CBF, or OEF, suggesting that the observations in the glucose study was not due to subject drowsiness or fatigue after staying inside the scanner. These findings suggest that ingestion of glucose may alter the rate of cerebral metabolism of oxygen in an acute setting.
Recent therapeutic successes have renewed interest in drug combinations, but experimental screening approaches are costly and often identify only small numbers of synergistic combinations. The DREAM consortium launched an open challenge to foster the development of in silico methods to computationally rank 91 compound pairs, from the most synergistic to the most antagonistic, based on gene-expression profiles of human B cells treated with individual compounds at multiple time points and concentrations. Using scoring metrics based on experimental dose-response curves, we assessed 32 methods (31 community-generated approaches and SynGen), four of which performed significantly better than random guessing. We highlight similarities between the methods. Although the accuracy of predictions was not optimal, we find that computational prediction of compound-pair activity is possible, and that community challenges can be useful to advance the field of in silico compound-synergy prediction.
Reverse engineering approaches to constructing gene regulatory networks (GRNs) based on genome-wide mRNA expression data have led to significant biological findings, such as the discovery of novel drug targets. However, the reliability of the reconstructed GRNs needs to be improved. Here, we propose an ensemble-based network aggregation approach to improving the accuracy of network topologies constructed from mRNA expression data. To evaluate the performances of different approaches, we created dozens of simulated networks from combinations of gene-set sizes and sample sizes and also tested our methods on three Escherichia coli datasets. We demonstrate that the ensemble-based network aggregation approach can be used to effectively integrate GRNs constructed from different studies - producing more accurate networks. We also apply this approach to building a network from epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) signature microarray data and identify hub genes that might be potential drug targets. The R code used to perform all of the analyses is available in an R package entitled "ENA", accessible on CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/ENA/).
Eukaryotic circadian oscillators consist of negative feedback loops that generate endogenous rhythmicities. Natural antisense RNAs are found in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. Nevertheless, the physiological importance and mode of action of most antisense RNAs are not clear. frequency (frq) encodes a component of the Neurospora core circadian negative feedback loop, which was thought to generate sustained rhythmicity. Transcription of qrf, the long non-coding frq antisense RNA, is induced by light, and its level oscillates in antiphase to frq sense RNA. Here we show that qrf transcription is regulated by both light-dependent and light-independent mechanisms. Light-dependent qrf transcription represses frq expression and regulates clock resetting. Light-independent qrf expression, on the other hand, is required for circadian rhythmicity. frq transcription also inhibits qrf expression and drives the antiphasic rhythm of qrf transcripts. The mutual inhibition of frq and qrf transcription thus forms a double negative feedback loop that is interlocked with the core feedback loop. Genetic and mathematical modelling analyses indicate that such an arrangement is required for robust and sustained circadian rhythmicity. Moreover, our results suggest that antisense transcription inhibits sense expression by mediating chromatin modifications and premature termination of transcription. Taken together, our results establish antisense transcription as an essential feature in a circadian system and shed light on the importance and mechanism of antisense action.
Electronic portals are secure Web-based servers that provide patients with real-time access to their personal health record (PHR). These applications are now widely used at cancer centers nationwide, but their impact has not been well studied. This study set out to determine predictors and patterns of use of a Web-based portal for accessing PHRs and communicating with health providers among patients with cancer.
Retrospective analysis of enrollment in and use of MyChart, a PHR portal for the Epic electronic medical record system, among patients seen at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center. Predictors of MyChart use were analyzed through univariable and multivariable regression models.
A total of 6,495 patients enrolled in MyChart from 2007 to 2012. The median number of log-ins over this period was 57 (interquartile range 17-137). The most common portal actions were viewing test results (37%), viewing and responding to clinic messages (29%), and sending medical advice requests (6.4%). Increased portal use was significantly associated with younger age, white race, and an upper aerodigestive malignancy diagnosis. Thirty-seven percent of all log-ins and 31% of all medical advice requests occurred outside clinic hours. Over the study period, the average number of patient log-ins per year more than doubled.
Among patients with cancer, PHR portal use is frequent and increasing. Younger patients, white patients, and patients with upper aerodigestive malignancies exhibit the heaviest portal use. Understanding the implications of this new technology will be central to the delivery of safe and effective care.
In response to starvation, cells undergo increased levels of autophagy and cell cycle arrest but the role of autophagy in starvation-induced cell cycle arrest is not fully understood. Here we show that autophagy genes regulate cell cycle arrest in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during nitrogen starvation. While exponentially growing wild-type yeasts preferentially arrest in G₁/G₀ in response to starvation, yeasts carrying null mutations in autophagy genes show a significantly higher percentage of cells in G₂/M. In these autophagy-deficient yeast strains, starvation elicits physiological properties associated with quiescence, such as Snf1 activation, glycogen and trehalose accumulation as well as heat-shock resistance. However, while nutrient-starved wild-type yeasts finish the G₂/M transition and arrest in G₁/G 0₀ autophagy-deficient yeasts arrest in telophase. Our results suggest that autophagy is crucial for mitotic exit during starvation and appropriate entry into a G₁/G₀ quiescent state.
Altered DAB2IP gene expression often detected in prostate cancer (PCa) is due to epigenetic silencing. In this study, we unveil a new mechanism leading to the loss of DAB2IP protein; an oncogenic S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) as E3 ubiquitin ligase plays a key regulator in DAB2IP degradation. In order to unveil the role of Skp2 in the turnover of DAB2IP protein, both prostate cell lines and prostate cancer specimens with a variety of molecular and cell biologic techniques were employed. We demonstrated that DAB2IP is regulated by Skp2-mediated proteasome degradation in the prostate cell lines. Further analyses identified the N-terminal DAB2IP containing the ubiquitination site. Immunohistochemical study exhibited an inverse correlation between DAB2IP and Skp2 protein expression in the prostate cancer tissue microarray. In contrast, DAB2IP can suppressSkp2 protein expression is mediated through Akt signaling. The reciprocal regulation between DAB2IP and Skp2 can impact on the growth of PCa cells. This reciprocal regulation between DAB2IP and Skp2 protein represents a unique homeostatic balance between tumor suppressor and oncoprotein in normal prostate epithelia, which is apparently altered in cancer cells. The outcome of this study has identified new potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategy for PCa.
Risk stratification using number, size, and histology of colorectal adenomas is currently suboptimal for identifying patients at increased risk for future colorectal cancer. We hypothesized that molecular markers of carcinogenesis in adenomas, measured via immunohistochemistry, may help identify high-risk patients. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a retrospective, 1:1 matched case-control study (n = 216; 46% female) in which cases were patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous adenoma and controls were patients with adenoma but no colorectal cancer at baseline or within 5 years of follow-up. In phase I of analyses, we compared expression of molecular markers of carcinogenesis in case and control adenomas, blind to case status. In phase II of analyses, patients were randomly divided into independent training and validation groups to develop a model for predicting case status. We found that seven markers [p53, p21, Cox-2, β-catenin (BCAT), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNApkcs), survivin, and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)] were significantly associated with case status on unadjusted analyses, as well as analyses adjusted for age and advanced adenoma status (P < 0.01 for at least one marker component). When applied to the validation set, a predictive model using these seven markers showed substantial accuracy for identifying cases [area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC), 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.92]. A parsimonious model using three markers performed similarly to the seven-marker model (AUC, 0.84). In summary, we found that molecular markers of carcinogenesis distinguished adenomas from patients with and without colorectal cancer. Furthermore, we speculate that prospective studies using molecular markers to identify individuals with polyps at risk for future neoplasia are warranted.
There is a significant need for rapid and cost-effective biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) for advancement of clinical practice and therapeutic trials.
The aim of the current study was to cross-validate our previously published serum-based algorithm on an independent assay platform as well as validate across tissues and species. Preliminary analyses were conducted to examine the utility in distinguishing AD from non-AD neurological disease (Parkinson's disease, PD).
Serum proteins from our previously published algorithm were quantified from 150 AD cases and 150 controls on the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) platform. Serum samples were analyzed from 49 PD cases and compared to a random sample of 51 AD cases and 62 controls. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to discriminate PD versus AD versus controls. Human and AD mouse model microvessel images were quantified with HAMAMATSU imaging software. Mouse serum biomarkers were assayed via MSD.
Analysis of 21 serum proteins from 150 AD cases and 150 controls yielded an algorithm with sensitivity and specificity of 0.90 for correctly classifying AD. This multi-marker approach was then validated across species and tissue. Assay of the top proteins in human and AD mouse model brain microvessels correctly classified 90-100% of the samples. SVM analyses were highly accurate at distinguishing PD versus AD versus controls.
This serum-based biomarker panel should be tested in a community-based setting to determine its utility as a first-line screen for AD and non-AD neurological diseases for primary care providers.
challenge for large-scale siRNA loss-of-function studies is the biological pleiotropy resulting from multiple modes of action of siRNA reagents. A major confounding feature of these reagents is the microRNA-like translational quelling resulting from short regions of oligonucleotide complementarity to many different messenger RNAs. We developed a computational approach, deconvolution analysis of RNAi screening data, for automated quantitation of off-target effects in RNAi screening data sets. Substantial reduction of off-target rates was experimentally validated in five distinct biological screens across different genome-wide siRNA libraries. A public-access graphical-user-interface has been constructed to facilitate application of this algorithm.
Cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-Seq) has made it possible to identify the targeting sites of RNA-binding proteins in various cell culture systems and tissue types on a genome-wide scale. Here we present a novel model-based approach (MiClip) to identify high-confidence protein-RNA binding sites from CLIP-seq datasets. This approach assigns a probability score for each potential binding site to help prioritize subsequent validation experiments. The MiClip algorithm has been tested in both HITS-CLIP and PAR-CLIP datasets. In the HITS-CLIP dataset, the signal/noise ratios of miRNA seed motif enrichment produced by the MiClip approach are between 17% and 301% higher than those by the ad hoc method for the top 10 most enriched miRNAs. In the PAR-CLIP dataset, the MiClip approach can identify ∼50% more validated binding targets than the original ad hoc method and two recently published methods. To facilitate the application of the algorithm, we have released an R package, MiClip (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/MiClip/index.html), and a public web-based graphical user interface software (http://galaxy.qbrc.org/tool_runner?tool_id=mi_clip) for customized analysis.
The photoactivatable ribonucleoside enhanced cross-linking immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) has been increasingly used for the global mapping of RNA-protein interaction sites. There are two key features of the PAR-CLIP experiments: The sequence read tags are likely to form an enriched peak around each RNA-protein interaction site; and the cross-linking procedure is likely to introduce a specific mutation in each sequence read tag at the interaction site. Several ad hoc methods have been developed to identify the RNA-protein interaction sites using either sequence read counts or mutation counts alone; however, rigorous statistical methods for analyzing PAR-CLIP are still lacking. In this article, we propose an integrative model to establish a joint distribution of observed read and mutation counts. To pinpoint the interaction sites at single base-pair resolution, we developed a novel modeling approach that adopts non-homogeneous hidden Markov models to incorporate the nucleotide sequence at each genomic location. Both simulation studies and data application showed that our method outperforms the ad hoc methods, and provides reliable inferences for the RNA-protein binding sites from PAR-CLIP data.
Although comparison of RNA-protein interaction profiles across different conditions has become increasingly important to understanding the function of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), few computational approaches have been developed for quantitative comparison of CLIP-seq datasets. Here, we present an easy-to-use command line tool, dCLIP, for quantitative CLIP-seq comparative analysis. The two-stage method implemented in dCLIP, including a modified MA normalization method and a hidden Markov model, is shown to be able to effectively identify differential binding regions of RBPs in four CLIP-seq datasets, generated by HITS-CLIP, iCLIP and PAR-CLIP protocols. dCLIP is freely available at http://qbrc.swmed.edu/software/.
DNA copy number alterations (CNAs), including amplifications and deletions, can result in significant changes in gene expression and are closely related to the development and progression of many diseases, especially cancer. For example, CNA-associated expression changes in certain genes (called candidate tumor driver genes) can alter the expression levels of many downstream genes through transcription regulation and cause cancer. Identification of such candidate tumor driver genes leads to discovery of novel therapeutic targets for personalized treatment of cancers. Several approaches have been developed for this purpose by using both copy number and gene expression data. In this study, we propose a Bayesian approach to identify candidate tumor driver genes, in which the copy number and gene expression data are modeled together, and the dependency between the two data types is modeled through conditional probabilities. The proposed joint modeling approach can identify CNA and differentially expressed genes simultaneously, leading to improved detection of candidate tumor driver genes and comprehensive understanding of underlying biological processes. We evaluated the proposed method in simulation studies, and then applied to a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma data set. Both simulation studies and data application show that the joint modeling approach can significantly improve the performance in identifying candidate tumor driver genes, when compared with other existing approaches.
Use of molecular profiles and clinical information can help predict which treatment would give the best outcome and survival for each individual patient, and thus guide optimal therapy, which offers great promise for the future of clinical trials and practice. High prediction accuracy is essential for selecting the best treatment plan. The gold standard for evaluating the prediction models is prospective clinical studies, in which patients are enrolled sequentially. However, there is no statistical method using this sequential feature to adapt the prediction model to the current patient cohort. In this article, we propose a reweighted random forest (RWRF) model, which updates the weight of each decision tree whenever additional patient information is available, to account for the potential heterogeneity between training and testing data. A simulation study and a lung cancer example are used to show that the proposed method can adapt the prediction model to current patients' characteristics, and, therefore, can improve prediction accuracy significantly. We also show that the proposed method can identify important and consistent predictive variables. Compared with rebuilding the prediction model, the RWRF updates a well-tested model gradually, and all of the adaptive procedure/parameters used in the RWRF model are prespecified before patient recruitment, which are important practical advantages for prospective clinical studies.
Prior work on the link between blood-based biomarkers and cognitive status has largely been based on dichotomous classifications rather than detailed neuropsychological functioning. The current project was designed to create serum-based biomarker algorithms that predict neuropsychological test performance.
A battery of neuropsychological measures was administered. Random forest analyses were utilized to create neuropsychological test-specific biomarker risk scores in a training set that were entered into linear regression models predicting the respective test scores in the test set. Serum multiplex biomarker data were analyzed on 108 proteins from 395 participants (197 Alzheimer patients and 198 controls) from the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium.
The biomarker risk scores were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of scores on all neuropsychological tests. With the exception of premorbid intellectual status (6.6%), the biomarker risk scores alone accounted for a minimum of 12.9% of the variance in neuropsychological scores. Biomarker algorithms (biomarker risk scores and demographics) accounted for substantially more variance in scores. Review of the variable importance plots indicated differential patterns of biomarker significance for each test, suggesting the possibility of domain-specific biomarker algorithms.
Our findings provide proof of concept for a novel area of scientific discovery, which we term 'molecular neuropsychology'.
Studying biological networks, such as protein-protein interactions, is key to understanding complex biological activities. Various types of large-scale biological datasets have been collected and analyzed with high-throughput technologies, including DNA microarray, next-generation sequencing, and the two-hybrid screening system, for this purpose. In this review, we focus on network-based approaches that help in understanding biological systems and identifying biological functions. Accordingly, this paper covers two major topics in network biology: reconstruction of gene regulatory networks and network-based applications, including protein function prediction, disease gene prioritization, and network-based genome-wide association study.
A challenge for biomedical research is the development of pharmaceuticals that appropriately target disease mechanisms. Natural products can be a rich source of bioactive chemicals for medicinal applications but can act through unknown mechanisms and can be difficult to produce or obtain. To address these challenges, we developed a new marine-derived, renewable natural products resource and a method for linking bioactive derivatives of this library to the proteins and biological processes that they target in cells. We used cell-based screening and computational analysis to match gene expression signatures produced by natural products to those produced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and synthetic microRNA (miRNA) libraries. With this strategy, we matched proteins and miRNAs with diverse biological processes and also identified putative protein targets and mechanisms of action for several previously undescribed marine-derived natural products. We confirmed mechanistic relationships for selected siRNAs, miRNAs, and compounds with functional roles in autophagy, chemotaxis mediated by discoidin domain receptor 2, or activation of the kinase AKT. Thus, this approach may be an effective method for screening new drugs while simultaneously identifying their targets.
Cell surface growth factor receptors couple environmental cues to the regulation of cytoplasmic homeostatic processes, including autophagy, and aberrant activation of such receptors is a common feature of human malignancies. Here, we defined the molecular basis by which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase regulates autophagy. Active EGFR binds the autophagy protein Beclin 1, leading to its multisite tyrosine phosphorylation, enhanced binding to inhibitors, and decreased Beclin 1-associated VPS34 kinase activity. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy disrupts Beclin 1 tyrosine phosphorylation and binding to its inhibitors and restores autophagy in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells with a TKI-sensitive EGFR mutation. In NSCLC tumor xenografts, the expression of a tyrosine phosphomimetic Beclin 1 mutant leads to reduced autophagy, enhanced tumor growth, tumor dedifferentiation, and resistance to TKI therapy. Thus, oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases directly regulate the core autophagy machinery, which may contribute to tumor progression and chemoresistance.
The molecular mechanism of autophagy and its relationship to other lysosomal degradation pathways remain incompletely understood. Here, we identified a previously uncharacterized mammalian-specific protein, Beclin 2, which, like Beclin 1, functions in autophagy and interacts with class III PI3K complex components and Bcl-2. However, Beclin 2, but not Beclin 1, functions in an additional lysosomal degradation pathway. Beclin 2 is required for ligand-induced endolysosomal degradation of several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) through its interaction with GASP1. Beclin 2 homozygous knockout mice have decreased embryonic viability, and heterozygous knockout mice have defective autophagy, increased levels of brain cannabinoid 1 receptor, elevated food intake, and obesity and insulin resistance. Our findings identify Beclin 2 as a converging regulator of autophagy and GPCR turnover and highlight the functional and mechanistic diversity of Beclin family members in autophagy, endolysosomal trafficking, and metabolism.
High-throughput cell-based phenotypic screening has become an increasingly important technology for discovering new drug targets and assigning gene functions. Such experiments use hundreds of 96-well or 384-well plates, to cover whole-genome RNAi collections and/or chemical compound files, and often collect measurements that are sensitive to spatial background noise whose patterns can vary across individual plates. Correcting these position effects can substantially improve measurement accuracy and screening success.
We developed SbacHTS (Spatial background noise correction for High-Throughput RNAi Screening) software for visualization, estimation and correction of spatial background noise in high-throughput RNAi screens. SbacHTS is supported on the Galaxy open-source framework with a user-friendly open access web interface. We find that SbacHTS software can effectively detect and correct spatial background noise, increase signal to noise ratio and enhance statistical detection power in high-throughput RNAi screening experiments.
The impact of recent experiences of task performance on resting functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) has important implications for the design of many neuroimaging studies, because, if an effect is present, the fcMRI scan then must be performed before any evoked fMRI or after a time gap to allow it to dissipate. The present study aims to determine the effect of simple button presses, which are used in many cognitive fMRI tasks as a response recording method, on later acquired fcMRI data. Human volunteers were subject to a 23-minute button press motor task. Their resting-state brain activity before and after the task was assessed with fcMRI. It was found that, compared to the pre-task resting period, the post-task resting fcMRI revealed a significantly higher (p=0.002, N=24) cross correlation coefficient (CC) between left and right motor cortices. These changes were not present in sham control studies that matched the paradigm timing but had no actual task. The amplitude of fcMRI signal fluctuation (AF) also demonstrated an increase in the post-task period compared to pre-task. These changes were observed using both the right-hand-only task and the two-hand task. Study of the recovery time course of these effects revealed that the CC changes lasted for about 5 min while the AF change lasted for at least 15 min. Finally, voxelwise analysis revealed that the pre/post-task differences were also observed in several other brain regions, including the auditory cortex, visual areas, and the thalamus. Our data suggest that the recent performance of the simple button press task can result in elevated fcMRI CC and AF in relevant brain networks and that fcMRI scan should be performed either before evoked fMRI or after a sufficient time gap following fMRI.
Much research effort has been devoted to the identification of enriched gene sets for microarray experiments. However, identified gene sets are often found to be inconsistent among independent studies. This is probably owing to the noisy data of microarray experiments coupled with small sample sizes of individual studies. Therefore, combining information from multiple studies is likely to improve the detection of truly enriched gene classes. As more and more data become available, it calls for statistical methods to integrate information from multiple studies, also known as meta-analysis, to improve the power of identifying enriched gene sets.
We propose a Bayesian model that provides a coherent framework for joint modeling of both gene set information and gene expression data from multiple studies, to improve the detection of enriched gene sets by leveraging information from different sources available. One distinct feature of our method is that it directly models the gene expression data, instead of using summary statistics, when synthesizing studies. Besides, the proposed model is flexible and offers an appropriate treatment of between-study heterogeneities that frequently arise in the meta-analysis of microarray experiments. We show that under our Bayesian model, the full posterior conditionals all have known distributions, which greatly facilitates the MCMC computation. Simulation results show that the proposed method can improve the power of gene set enrichment meta-analysis, as opposed to existing methods developed by Shen and Tseng (2010, Bioinformatics, 26, 1316-1323), and it is not sensitive to mild or moderate deviations from the distributional assumption for gene expression data. We illustrate the proposed method through an application of combining eight lung cancer datasets for gene set enrichment analysis, which demonstrates the usefulness of the method.
Mexican Americans are the fastest aging segment of the U.S. population, yet little scientific literature exists regarding the Alzheimer's disease (AD) among this segment of the population. The extant literature suggests that biomarkers of AD will vary according to race/ethnicity though no prior work has explicitly studied this possibility. The aim of this study was to create a serum-based biomarker profile of AD among Mexican American.
Data were analyzed from 363 Mexican American participants (49 AD and 314 normal controls) enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research & Care Consortium (TARCC). Non-fasting serum samples were analyzed using a luminex-based multi-plex platform. A biomarker profile was generated using random forest analyses.
The biomarker profile of AD among Mexican Americans was different from prior work from non-Hispanic populations with regards to the variable importance plots. In fact, many of the top markers were related to metabolic factors (e.g., FABP, GLP-1, CD40, pancreatic polypeptide, insulin-like-growth factor, and insulin). The biomarker profile was a significant classifier of AD status yielding an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.77, 0.92, and 0.64, respectively. Combining biomarkers with clinical variables yielded a better balance of sensitivity and specificity.
The biomarker profile for AD among Mexican American cases is significantly different from that previously identified among non-Hispanic cases from many large-scale studies. This is the first study to explicitly examine and provide support for blood-based biomarkers of AD among Mexican Americans. Areas for future research are highlighted.
Prospectively identifying who will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) would improve clinical decisions for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In this study, we aim to develop and validate a functional gene set that predicts the clinical benefits of ACT in NSCLC.
An 18-hub-gene prognosis signature was developed through a systems biology approach, and its prognostic value was evaluated in six independent cohorts. The 18-hub-gene set was then integrated with genome-wide functional (RNAi) data and genetic aberration data to derive a 12-gene predictive signature for ACT benefits in NSCLC.
Using a cohort of 442 stage I to III NSCLC patients who underwent surgical resection, we identified an 18-hub-gene set that robustly predicted the prognosis of patients with adenocarcinoma in all validation datasets across four microarray platforms. The hub genes, identified through a purely data-driven approach, have significant biological implications in tumor pathogenesis, including NKX2-1, Aurora Kinase A, PRC1, CDKN3, MBIP, and RRM2. The 12-gene predictive signature was successfully validated in two independent datasets (n = 90 and 176). The predicted benefit group showed significant improvement in survival after ACT (UT Lung SPORE data: HR = 0.34, P = 0.017; JBR.10 clinical trial data: HR = 0.36, P = 0.038), whereas the predicted nonbenefit group showed no survival benefit for 2 datasets (HR = 0.80, P = 0.70; HR = 0.91, P = 0.82).
This is the first study to integrate genetic aberration, genome-wide RNAi data, and mRNA expression data to identify a functional gene set that predicts which resectable patients with non-small cell lung cancer will have a survival benefit with ACT.
Epigenetics is the study of changes to the genome that can switch genes on or off and determine which proteins are transcribed without altering the DNA sequence. Recently, epigenetic changes have been linked to the development and progression of disease such as psychiatric disorders. High-throughput epigenetic experiments have enabled researchers to measure genome-wide epigenetic profiles and yield data consisting of intensity ratios of immunoprecipitation versus reference samples. The intensity ratios can provide a view of genomic regions where protein binding occur under one experimental condition and further allow us to detect epigenetic alterations through comparison between two different conditions. However, such experiments can be expensive, with only a few replicates available. Moreover, epigenetic data are often spatially correlated with high noise levels. In this paper, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical model, combined with hidden Markov processes with four states for modeling spatial dependence, to detect genomic sites with epigenetic changes from two-sample experiments with paired internal control. One attractive feature of the proposed method is that the four states of the hidden Markov process have well-defined biological meanings and allow us to directly call the change patterns based on the corresponding posterior probabilities. In contrast, none of existing methods can offer this advantage. In addition, the proposed method offers great power in statistical inference by spatial smoothing (via hidden Markov modeling) and information pooling (via hierarchical modeling). Both simulation studies and real data analysis in a cocaine addiction study illustrate the reliability and success of this method.
Aberrant signaling through the class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt axis is frequent in human cancer. Here, we show that Beclin 1, an essential autophagy and tumor suppressor protein, is a target of the protein kinase Akt. Expression of a Beclin 1 mutant resistant to Akt-mediated phosphorylation increased autophagy, reduced anchorage-independent growth, and inhibited Akt-driven tumorigenesis. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Beclin 1 enhanced its interactions with 14-3-3 and vimentin intermediate filament proteins, and vimentin depletion increased autophagy and inhibited Akt-driven transformation. Thus, Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Beclin 1 functions in autophagy inhibition, oncogenesis, and the formation of an autophagy-inhibitory Beclin 1/14-3-3/vimentin intermediate filament complex. These findings have broad implications for understanding the role of Akt signaling and intermediate filament proteins in autophagy and cancer.
Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a hormone secreted by the liver during fasting that elicits diverse aspects of the adaptive starvation response. Among its effects, FGF21 induces hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, increases insulin sensitivity, blocks somatic growth and causes bone loss. Here we show that transgenic overexpression of FGF21 markedly extends lifespan in mice without reducing food intake or affecting markers of NAD+ metabolism or AMP kinase and mTOR signaling. Transcriptomic analysis suggests that FGF21 acts primarily by blunting the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway in liver. These findings raise the possibility that FGF21 can be used to extend lifespan in other species.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00065.001.
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) promotes the survival and function of neutrophils. G-CSF is also a neurotrophic factor, increasing neuroplasticity and suppressing apoptosis.
We analyzed G-CSF levels in 197 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 203 cognitively normal controls (NCs) from a longitudinal study by the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). Data were analyzed by regression with adjustment for age, education, gender and APOE4 status.
Serum G-CSF was significantly lower in AD patients than in NCs (β = -0.073; p = 0.008). However, among AD patients, higher serum G-CSF was significantly associated with increased disease severity, as indicated by lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores (β = -0.178; p = 0.014) and higher scores on the global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale (β = 0.170; p = 0.018) and CDR Sum of Boxes (β = 0.157; p = 0.035).
G-CSF appears to have a complex relationship with AD pathogenesis and may reflect different pathophysiologic processes at different illness stages.
Cellular granules lacking boundary membranes harbor RNAs and their associated proteins and play diverse roles controlling the timing and location of protein synthesis. Formation of such granules was emulated by treatment of mouse brain extracts and human cell lysates with a biotinylated isoxazole (b-isox) chemical. Deep sequencing of the associated RNAs revealed an enrichment for mRNAs known to be recruited to neuronal granules used for dendritic transport and localized translation at synapses. Precipitated mRNAs contain extended 3' UTR sequences and an enrichment in binding sites for known granule-associated proteins. Hydrogels composed of the low complexity (LC) sequence domain of FUS recruited and retained the same mRNAs as were selectively precipitated by the b-isox chemical. Phosphorylation of the LC domain of FUS prevented hydrogel retention, offering a conceptual means of dynamic, signal-dependent control of RNA granule assembly.
Prostate cancer (PCa) becomes lethal when cancer cells develop into castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Androgen receptor (AR) gene mutation, altered AR regulation, or overexpression of AR often found in CRPC is believed to become one of the key factors to the lethal phenotype. Here we identify Slug, a member of the Snail family of zinc-finger transcription factors associated with cancer metastasis, as a unique androgen-responsive gene in PCa cells. In addition, the presence of constitutively active AR can induce Slug expression in a ligand-independent manner. Slug overexpression will increase AR protein expression and form a complex with AR. In addition, Slug appears to be a novel coactivator to enhance AR transcriptional activities and AR-mediated cell growth with or without androgen. In vivo, elevated Slug expression provides a growth advantage for PCa cells in androgen-deprived conditions. Most importantly, these observations were validated by several data sets from tissue microarrays. Overall, there is a reciprocal regulation between Slug and AR not only in transcriptional regulation but also in protein bioactivity, and Slug-AR complex plays an important role in accelerating the androgen-independent outgrowth of CRPC.
Characterizing the effect of oxygen (O(2)) modulation on the brain may provide a better understanding of several clinically relevant problems, including acute mountain sickness and hyperoxic therapy in patients with traumatic brain injury or ischemia. Quantifying the O(2) effects on brain metabolism is also critical when using this physiologic maneuver to calibrate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. Although intuitively crucial, the question of whether the brain's metabolic rate depends on the amount of O(2) available has not been addressed in detail previously. This can be largely attributed to the scarcity and complexity of measurement techniques. Recently, we have developed an MR method that provides a noninvasive (devoid of exogenous agents), rapid (<5 minutes), and reliable (coefficient of variant, CoV <3%) measurement of the global cerebral metabolic rate of O(2) (CMRO(2)). In the present study, we evaluated metabolic and vascular responses to manipulation of the fraction of inspired O(2) (FiO(2)). Hypoxia with 14% FiO(2) was found to increase both CMRO(2) (5.0±2.0%, N=16, P=0.02) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) (9.8±2.3%, P<0.001). However, hyperoxia decreased CMRO(2) by 10.3±1.5% (P<0.001) and 16.9±2.7% (P<0.001) for FiO(2) of 50% and 98%, respectively. The CBF showed minimal changes with hyperoxia. Our results suggest that modulation of inspired O(2) alters brain metabolism in a dose-dependent manner.
Exercise has beneficial effects on human health, including protection against metabolic disorders such as diabetes. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects are incompletely understood. The lysosomal degradation pathway, autophagy, is an intracellular recycling system that functions during basal conditions in organelle and protein quality control. During stress, increased levels of autophagy permit cells to adapt to changing nutritional and energy demands through protein catabolism. Moreover, in animal models, autophagy protects against diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, infections, inflammatory diseases, ageing and insulin resistance. Here we show that acute exercise induces autophagy in skeletal and cardiac muscle of fed mice. To investigate the role of exercise-mediated autophagy in vivo, we generated mutant mice that show normal levels of basal autophagy but are deficient in stimulus (exercise- or starvation)-induced autophagy. These mice (termed BCL2 AAA mice) contain knock-in mutations in BCL2 phosphorylation sites (Thr69Ala, Ser70Ala and Ser84Ala) that prevent stimulus-induced disruption of the BCL2-beclin-1 complex and autophagy activation. BCL2 AAA mice show decreased endurance and altered glucose metabolism during acute exercise, as well as impaired chronic exercise-mediated protection against high-fat-diet-induced glucose intolerance. Thus, exercise induces autophagy, BCL2 is a crucial regulator of exercise- (and starvation)-induced autophagy in vivo, and autophagy induction may contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of exercise.
The gene regulatory network (GRN) reveals the regulatory relationships among genes and can provide a systematic understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying biological processes. The importance of computer simulations in understanding cellular processes is now widely accepted; a variety of algorithms have been developed to study these biological networks. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive evaluation and a practical guide to aid in choosing statistical methods for constructing large scale GRNs. Using both simulation studies and a real application in E. coli data, we compare different methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity in identifying the true connections and the hub genes, the ease of use, and computational speed. Our results show that these algorithms performed reasonably well, and each method has its own advantages: (1) GeneNet, WGCNA (Weighted Correlation Network Analysis), and ARACNE (Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks) performed well in constructing the global network structure; (2) GeneNet and SPACE (Sparse PArtial Correlation Estimation) performed well in identifying a few connections with high specificity.
Access to gene expression data has become increasingly common in recent years; however, analysis has become more difficult as it is often desirable to integrate data from different platforms. Probe mapping across microarray platforms is the first and most crucial step for data integration. In this article, we systematically review and compare different approaches to map probes across seven platforms from different vendors: U95A, U133A and U133 Plus 2.0 from Affymetrix, Inc.; HT-12 v1, HT-12v2 and HT-12v3 from Illumina, Inc.; and 4112A from Agilent, Inc. We use a unique data set, which contains 56 lung cancer cell line samples-each of which has been measured by two different microarray platforms-to evaluate the consistency of expression measurement across platforms using different approaches. Based on the evaluation from the empirical data set, the BLAST alignment of the probe sequences to a recent revision of the Transcriptome generated better results than using annotations provided by Vendors or from Bioconductor's Annotate package. However, a combination of all three methods (deemed the 'Consensus Annotation') yielded the most consistent expression measurement across platforms. To facilitate data integration across microarray platforms for the research community, we develop a user-friendly web-based tool, an API and an R package to map data across different microarray platforms from Affymetrix, Illumina and Agilent. Information on all three can be found at http://qbrc.swmed.edu/software/probemapper/.
Pooled short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) library screening is a powerful tool for identifying a set of genes in biological pathways that require stable expression to produce a desired phenotype. Massive parallel sequencing of half-hairpins has proven highly variable and has not given satisfactory results concerning the relative abundance of different shRNAs before and after selection. Here, the authors describe a method for quantitative comparison of half-hairpins from pooled shRNAs in the mir30-based pGIPZ vector that is analyzed by massive parallel sequencing. Introducing a multiplexing code and refining the sample preparation scheme resulted in the predicted ability to detect twofold enrichments. These improvements should permit half-hairpin sequencing to analyze either dropout screens or selective pooled shRNA screens of limited stringency to analyze phenotypes not accessible in transient experiments.
To characterize the white matter structural changes at the tract level and tract group level, comprehensive analysis with 4 metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AxD) and radial diffusivity (RD), was conducted. Tract groups, namely limbic, commissural, association, and projection tracts, include white matter tracts of similar functions. Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired from 61 subjects (26 Alzheimer's disease [AD], 11 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI], and 24 age-matched controls). An atlas-based approach was used to survey 30 major cerebral white matter tracts with the measurements of FA, MD, AxD, and RD. Regional cortical atrophy and cognitive functions of AD patients were also measured to correlate with the structural changes of white matter. Synchronized structural changes of cingulum bundle and fornix, both of which are part of limbic tract group, were revealed. Widespread yet distinctive structural changes were found in limbic, commissural, association, and projection tract groups between control and AD subjects. Specifically, FA, MD, and RD of limbic tracts, FA, MD, AxD, and RD of commissural tracts, MD, AxD, and RD of association tracts, and MD and AxD of projection tracts are significantly different between AD patients and control subjects. In contrast, the comparison between aMCI and control subjects shows disruption only in the limbic and commissural tract groups of aMCI subjects. MD values of all tract groups of AD patients are significantly correlated to cognitive functions. Difference between AD and control and that between aMCI and control indicates a progression pattern of white matter disruption from limbic and commissural tract group to other tract groups. High correlation between FA, MD, and RD measurements from limbic tracts and cortical atrophy suggests the disruption of the limbic tract group is caused by the neuronal damage.
There is no rapid and cost effective tool that can be implemented as a front-line screening tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the population level.
To generate and cross-validate a blood-based screener for AD that yields acceptable accuracy across both serum and plasma.
Analysis of serum biomarker proteins were conducted on 197 Alzheimer's disease (AD) participants and 199 control participants from the Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium (TARC) with further analysis conducted on plasma proteins from 112 AD and 52 control participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The full algorithm was derived from a biomarker risk score, clinical lab (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, homocysteine), and demographic (age, gender, education, APOE*E4 status) data.
11 proteins met our criteria and were utilized for the biomarker risk score. The random forest (RF) biomarker risk score from the TARC serum samples (training set) yielded adequate accuracy in the ADNI plasma sample (training set) (AUC = 0.70, sensitivity (SN) = 0.54 and specificity (SP) = 0.78), which was below that obtained from ADNI cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analyses (t-tau/Aβ ratio AUC = 0.92). However, the full algorithm yielded excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.88, SN = 0.75, and SP = 0.91). The likelihood ratio of having AD based on a positive test finding (LR+) = 7.03 (SE = 1.17; 95% CI = 4.49-14.47), the likelihood ratio of not having AD based on the algorithm (LR-) = 3.55 (SE = 1.15; 2.22-5.71), and the odds ratio of AD were calculated in the ADNI cohort (OR) = 28.70 (1.55; 95% CI = 11.86-69.47).
It is possible to create a blood-based screening algorithm that works across both serum and plasma that provides a comparable screening accuracy to that obtained from CSF analyses.
Selective autophagy involves the recognition and targeting of specific cargo, such as damaged organelles, misfolded proteins, or invading pathogens for lysosomal destruction. Yeast genetic screens have identified proteins required for different forms of selective autophagy, including cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting, pexophagy and mitophagy, and mammalian genetic screens have identified proteins required for autophagy regulation. However, there have been no systematic approaches to identify molecular determinants of selective autophagy in mammalian cells. Here, to identify mammalian genes required for selective autophagy, we performed a high-content, image-based, genome-wide small interfering RNA screen to detect genes required for the colocalization of Sindbis virus capsid protein with autophagolysosomes. We identified 141 candidate genes required for viral autophagy, which were enriched for cellular pathways related to messenger RNA processing, interferon signalling, vesicle trafficking, cytoskeletal motor function and metabolism. Ninety-six of these genes were also required for Parkin-mediated mitophagy, indicating that common molecular determinants may be involved in autophagic targeting of viral nucleocapsids and autophagic targeting of damaged mitochondria. Murine embryonic fibroblasts lacking one of these gene products, the C2-domain containing protein, SMURF1, are deficient in the autophagosomal targeting of Sindbis and herpes simplex viruses and in the clearance of damaged mitochondria. Moreover, SMURF1-deficient mice accumulate damaged mitochondria in the heart, brain and liver. Thus, our study identifies candidate determinants of selective autophagy, and defines SMURF1 as a newly recognized mediator of both viral autophagy and mitophagy.
The requirement of frozen tissues for microarray experiments limits the clinical usage of genome-wide expression profiling by using microarray technology. The goal of this study is to test the feasibility of developing lung cancer prognosis gene signatures by using genome-wide expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, which are widely available and provide a valuable rich source for studying the association of molecular changes in cancer and associated clinical outcomes.
We randomly selected 100 Non-Small-Cell lung cancer (NSCLC) FFPE samples with annotated clinical information from the UT-Lung SPORE Tissue Bank. We microdissected tumor area from FFPE specimens and used Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 arrays to attain gene expression data. After strict quality control and analysis procedures, a supervised principal component analysis was used to develop a robust prognosis signature for NSCLC. Three independent published microarray datasets were used to validate the prognosis model.
This study showed that the robust gene signature derived from genome-wide expression profiling of FFPE samples is strongly associated with lung cancer clinical outcomes and can be used to refine the prognosis for stage I lung cancer patients, and the prognostic signature is independent of clinical variables. This signature was validated in several independent studies and was refined to a 59-gene lung cancer prognosis signature.
We conclude that genome-wide profiling of FFPE lung cancer samples can identify a set of genes whose expression level provides prognostic information across different platforms and studies, which will allow its application in clinical settings.
We previously created a serum-based algorithm that yielded excellent diagnostic accuracy in Alzheimer's disease. The current project was designed to refine that algorithm by reducing the number of serum proteins and by including clinical labs. The link between the biomarker risk score and neuropsychological performance was also examined.
Serum-protein multiplex biomarker data from 197 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and 203 cognitively normal controls from the Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium were analyzed. The 30 markers identified as the most important from our initial analyses and clinical labs were utilized to create the algorithm.
The 30-protein risk score yielded a sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 0.88, 0.82, and 0.91, respectively. When combined with demographic data and clinical labs, the algorithm yielded a sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of 0.89, 0.85, and 0.94, respectively. In linear regression models, the biomarker risk score was most strongly related to neuropsychological tests of language and memory.
Our previously published diagnostic algorithm can be restricted to only 30 serum proteins and still retain excellent diagnostic accuracy. Additionally, the revised biomarker risk score is significantly related to neuropsychological test performance.
Recent genomic studies have shown that significant chromosomal spatial correlation exists in gene expression of many organisms. Interestingly, coexpression has been observed among genes separated by a fixed interval in specific regions of a chromosome chain, which is likely caused by three-dimensional (3D) chromosome folding structures. Modeling such spatial correlation explicitly may lead to essential understandings of 3D chromosome structures and their roles in transcriptional regulation. In this paper, we explore chromosomal spatial correlation induced by 3D chromosome structures, and propose a hierarchical Bayesian method based on helical structures to formally model and incorporate the correlation into the analysis of gene expression microarray data. It is the first study to quantify and infer 3D chromosome structures in vivo using expression microarrays. Simulation studies show computing feasibility of the proposed method and that, under the assumption of helical chromosome structures, it can lead to precise estimation of structural parameters and gene expression levels. Real data applications demonstrate an intriguing biological phenomenon that functionally associated genes, which are far apart along the chromosome chain, are brought into physical proximity by chromosomal folding in 3D space to facilitate their coexpression. It leads to important biological insight into relationship between chromosome structure and function.
DNA copy number (DCN) is the number of copies of DNA at a region of a genome. The alterations of DCN are highly associated with the development of different tumors. Recently, microarray technologies are being employed to detect DCN changes at many loci at the same time in tumor samples. The resulting DCN data are often very noisy, and the tumor sample is often contaminated by normal cells. The goal of computational analysis of array-based DCN data is to infer the underlying DCNs from raw DCN data. Previous methods for this task do not model the tumor/normal cell mixture ratio explicitly and they cannot output segments with DCN annotations. We developed a novel model-based method using the minimum description length (MDL) principle for DCN data segmentation. Our new method can output underlying DCN for each chromosomal segment, and at the same time, infer the underlying tumor proportion in the test samples. Empirical results show that our method achieves better accuracies on average as compared to three previous methods, namely Circular Binary Segmentation, Hidden Markov Model and Ultrasome.
White matter provides anatomic connections among brain regions and has received increasing attention in understanding brain intrinsic networks and neurological disorders. Despite significant progresses made in characterizing the white matter's structural properties using post-mortem techniques and in vivo diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI) methods, its physiology remains poorly understood. In the present study, cerebral blood flow (CBF) of the white matter was investigated on a fiber tract-specific basis using MRI (n=10, 25-33 years old). It was found that CBF in the white matter varied considerably, up to a factor of two between fiber groups. Furthermore, a paradoxically inverse correlation was observed between white matter CBF and structural and functional connectivities (P<0.001). Fiber tracts that had a higher CBF tended to have a lower fractional anisotropy in water diffusion, and the gray matter terminals connected to the tract also tended to have a lower temporal synchrony in resting-state BOLD signal fluctuation. These findings suggest a clear association between white matter perfusion and gray matter activity, but the nature of this relationship requires further investigations given that they are negatively, rather than positively, correlated.
The identification of prognostic tumor biomarkers that also would have potential as therapeutic targets, particularly in patients with early stage disease, has been a long sought-after goal in the management and treatment of lung cancer. The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily, which is composed of 48 transcription factors that govern complex physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, could represent a unique subset of these biomarkers. In fact, many members of this family are the targets of already identified selective receptor modulators, providing a direct link between individual tumor NR quantitation and selection of therapy. The goal of this study, which begins this overall strategy, was to investigate the association between mRNA expression of the NR superfamily and the clinical outcome for patients with lung cancer, and to test whether a tumor NR gene signature provided useful information (over available clinical data) for patients with lung cancer.
Using quantitative real-time PCR to study NR expression in 30 microdissected non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and their pair-matched normal lung epithelium, we found great variability in NR expression among patients' tumor and non-involved lung epithelium, found a strong association between NR expression and clinical outcome, and identified an NR gene signature from both normal and tumor tissues that predicted patient survival time and disease recurrence. The NR signature derived from the initial 30 NSCLC samples was validated in two independent microarray datasets derived from 442 and 117 resected lung adenocarcinomas. The NR gene signature was also validated in 130 squamous cell carcinomas. The prognostic signature in tumors could be distilled to expression of two NRs, short heterodimer partner and progesterone receptor, as single gene predictors of NSCLC patient survival time, including for patients with stage I disease. Of equal interest, the studies of microdissected histologically normal epithelium and matched tumors identified expression in normal (but not tumor) epithelium of NGFIB3 and mineralocorticoid receptor as single gene predictors of good prognosis.
NR expression is strongly associated with clinical outcomes for patients with lung cancer, and this expression profile provides a unique prognostic signature for lung cancer patient survival time, particularly for those with early stage disease. This study highlights the potential use of NRs as a rational set of therapeutically tractable genes as theragnostic biomarkers, and specifically identifies short heterodimer partner and progesterone receptor in tumors, and NGFIB3 and MR in non-neoplastic lung epithelium, for future detailed translational study in lung cancer. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
To develop an algorithm that separates patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) from controls.
Longitudinal case-control study.
The Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium project. Patients We analyzed serum protein-based multiplex biomarker data from 197 patients diagnosed with AD and 203 controls. Main Outcome Measure The total sample was randomized equally into training and test sets and random forest methods were applied to the training set to create a biomarker risk score.
The biomarker risk score had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.80 and 0.91, respectively, and an area under the curve of 0.91 in detecting AD. When age, sex, education, and APOE status were added to the algorithm, the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve were 0.94, 0.84, and 0.95, respectively.
These initial data suggest that serum protein-based biomarkers can be combined with clinical information to accurately classify AD. A disproportionate number of inflammatory and vascular markers were weighted most heavily in the analyses. Additionally, these markers consistently distinguished cases from controls in significant analysis of microarray, logistic regression, and Wilcoxon analyses, suggesting the existence of an inflammatory-related endophenotype of AD that may provide targeted therapeutic opportunities for this subset of patients.
Dysfunctions in memory T cells contribute to various inflammatory autoimmune diseases and neoplasms. We hypothesize that investigating the differences of genetic profiles between resting and activated naïve and memory T cells may provide insight into the characterization of abnormal memory T cells in diseases, such as Sézary syndrome (SS), a neoplasm composed of CD4(+) CD45RO(+) cells.
We determined genes distinctively expressed between resting and activated naive and memory cells. Levels of up-regulated genes in resting and activated memory cells were measured in SS PBMCs, which were largely comprised of CD4(+) CD45RO(+) cells, to quantitatively assess how different Sézary cells were from memory cells.
We compared gene expression profiles using high-density oligo-microarrays between resting and activated naïve and memory CD4(+) T cells. Differentially expressed genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Levels of genes up-regulated in activated and resting memory T cells were determined in SS PBMCs by qRT-PCR.
Activated memory cells expressed greater numbers of immune-mediated genes involved in effector function compared to naïve cells in our microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. Nine out of 14 genes with enhanced levels in activated memory cells had reduced levels in SS PBMCs (p<0.05).
Activation of memory and naïve CD4(+) T cells revealed a diverging gap in gene expression between these subsets, with memory cells expressing immune-related genes important for effector function. Many of these genes were markedly depressed in SS patients, implying Sézary cells are markedly impaired in mounting immune responses compared to memory cells.
Despite abundant expression of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) in brain, the regulation and behavioral role of DNA methylation remain poorly understood. We found that Dnmt3a expression was regulated in mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc) by chronic cocaine use and chronic social defeat stress. Moreover, NAc-specific manipulations that block DNA methylation potentiated cocaine reward and exerted antidepressant-like effects, whereas NAc-specific Dnmt3a overexpression attenuated cocaine reward and was pro-depressant. On a cellular level, we found that chronic cocaine use selectively increased thin dendritic spines on NAc neurons and that DNA methylation was both necessary and sufficient to mediate these effects. These data establish the importance of Dnmt3a in the NAc in regulating cellular and behavioral plasticity to emotional stimuli.
Chemotherapy prolongs survival without substantially impairing quality of life for medically fit patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but population-based studies have shown that only 20 to 30% of these patients receive chemotherapy. These earlier studies have relied on Medicare-linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, thus excluding the 30 to 35% of lung cancer patients younger than 65 years. Therefore, we determined the use of chemotherapy in a contemporary, diverse NSCLC population encompassing all patient ages.
We performed a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with stage IV NSCLC from 2000 to 2007 at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Demographic, treatment, and outcome data were obtained from hospital tumor registries. The association between these variables was assessed using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression.
In all, 718 patients met criteria for analysis. Mean age was 60 years, 58% were men, and 45% were white. Three hundred fifty-three patients (49%) received chemotherapy. In univariate analysis, receipt of chemotherapy was associated with age (53% of patients younger than 65 years versus 41% of patients aged 65 years and older; p = 0.003) and insurance type (p < 0.001). In a multivariate model, age and insurance type remained associated with receipt of chemotherapy. For individuals receiving chemotherapy, median survival was 9.2 months, compared with 2.3 months for untreated patients (p < 0.001).
In a contemporary population representing the full age range of patients with advanced NSCLC, chemotherapy was administered to approximately half of all patients-more than twice the rate reported in some earlier studies. Patient age and insurance type are associated with receipt of chemotherapy.
The genome-wide DNA-protein-binding data, DNA sequence data and gene expression data represent complementary means to deciphering global and local transcriptional regulatory circuits. Combining these different types of data can not only improve the statistical power, but also provide a more comprehensive picture of gene regulation. In this paper, we propose a novel statistical model to augment protein-DNA-binding data with gene expression and DNA sequence data when available. We specify a hierarchical Bayes model and use Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to draw inferences. Both simulation studies and an analysis of an experimental data set show that the proposed joint modeling method can significantly improve the specificity and sensitivity of identifying target genes as compared with conventional approaches relying on a single data source.
Although it is a widely studied psychiatric syndrome, major depressive disorder remains a poorly understood illness, especially with regard to the disconnect between treatment initiation and the delayed onset of clinical improvement. We have recently validated chronic social defeat stress in mice as a model in which a depression-like phenotype is reversed by chronic, but not acute, antidepressant administration. Here, we use chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip assays--ChIP followed by genome wide promoter array analyses--to study the effects of chronic defeat stress on chromatin regulation in the mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region implicated in depression. Our results demonstrate that chronic defeat stress causes widespread and long-lasting changes in gene regulation, including alterations in repressive histone methylation and in phospho-CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) binding, in the NAc. We then show similarities and differences in this regulation to that observed in another mouse model of depression, prolonged adult social isolation. In the social defeat model, we observed further that many of the stress-induced changes in gene expression are reversed by chronic imipramine treatment, and that resilient mice-those resistant to the deleterious effects of defeat stress-show patterns of chromatin regulation in the NAc that overlap dramatically with those seen with imipramine treatment. These findings provide new insight into the molecular basis of depression-like symptoms and the mechanisms by which antidepressants exert their delayed clinical efficacy. They also raise the novel idea that certain individuals resistant to stress may naturally mount antidepressant-like adaptations in response to chronic stress.
Changes in gene expression contribute to the long-lasting regulation of the brain's reward circuitry seen in drug addiction; however, the specific genes regulated and the transcriptional mechanisms underlying such regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with promoter microarray analysis to characterize genome-wide chromatin changes in the mouse nucleus accumbens, a crucial brain reward region, after repeated cocaine administration. Our findings reveal several interesting principles of gene regulation by cocaine and of the role of DeltaFosB and CREB, two prominent cocaine-induced transcription factors, in this brain region. The findings also provide comprehensive insight into the molecular pathways regulated by cocaine-including a new role for sirtuins (Sirt1 and Sirt2)-which are induced in the nucleus accumbens by cocaine and, in turn, dramatically enhance the behavioral effects of the drug.
Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer and also in resistance to treatment. Inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor is a key component of the multistep evolution of most cancers. Links between the NF-kappaB and p53 pathways are under intense investigation. In this study, we show that the receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a central component of the NF-kappaB signaling network, negatively regulates p53 tumor suppressor signaling. Loss of RIP1 from cells results in augmented induction of p53 in response to DNA damage, whereas increased RIP1 level leads to a complete shutdown of DNA damage-induced p53 induction by enhancing levels of cellular mdm2. The key signal generated by RIP1 to up-regulate mdm2 and inhibit p53 is activation of NF-kappaB. The clinical implication of this finding is shown in glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. We show that RIP1 is commonly overexpressed in glioblastoma, but not in grades II and III glioma, and increased expression of RIP1 confers a worse prognosis in glioblastoma. Importantly, RIP1 levels correlate strongly with mdm2 levels in glioblastoma. Our results show a key interaction between the NF-kappaB and p53 pathways that may have implications for the targeted treatment of glioblastoma.
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the capacity of blood vessels to dilate and is an important marker for brain vascular reserve. It may provide a useful addition to the traditional baseline blood flow measurement when assessing vascular factors in brain disorders. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent MRI under CO(2) inhalation offers a non-invasive and quantitative means to estimate CVR in humans. In this study, we investigated several important methodological aspects of this technique with the goal of optimizing the experimental and data processing strategies for clinical use. Comparing 4 min of 5% CO(2) inhalation (less comfortable) to a 1 min inhalation (more comfortable) duration, it was found that the CVR values were 0.31 +/- 0.05%/mmHg (N = 11) and 0.31 +/- 0.08%/mmHg (N = 9), respectively, showing no significant differences between the two breathing paradigms. Therefore, the 1 min paradigm is recommended for future application studies for patient comfort and tolerability. Furthermore, we have found that end-tidal CO(2) recording was useful for accurate quantification of CVR because it provided both timing and amplitude information regarding the input function to the brain vascular system, which can be subject-dependent. Finally, we show that inter-subject variations in CVR are of physiologic origin and affect the whole brain in a similar fashion. Based on this, it is proposed that relative CVR (normalized against the CVR of the whole brain or a reference tissue) may be a more sensitive biomarker than absolute CVR in clinical applications as it minimizes inter-subject variations. With these technological optimizations, CVR mapping may become a useful method for studies of neurological and psychiatric diseases.
Ghrelin is a hormone that influences many physiological processes and behaviors, such as food intake, insulin and growth hormone release, and a coordinated response to chronic stress. However, little is known about the molecular pathways governing ghrelin release and ghrelin cell function. To better study ghrelin cell physiology, we have generated several transgenic mouse lines expressing humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) under the control of the mouse ghrelin promoter. hrGFP expression was especially abundant in the gastric oxyntic mucosa, in a pattern mirroring that of ghrelin immunoreactivity and ghrelin mRNA. hrGFP expression also was observed in the duodenum, but not in the brain, pancreatic islet, or testis. In addition, we used fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) to collect and partially characterize highly enriched populations of gastric ghrelin cells. We suggest that these novel ghrelin-hrGFP transgenic mice will serve as useful tools to better understand ghrelin cell physiology.
In determining differential expression in cDNA microarray experiments, the expression level of an individual gene is usually assumed to be independent of the expression levels of other genes, but many recent studies have shown that a gene's expression level tends to be similar to that of its neighbors on a chromosome, and differentially expressed (DE) genes are likely to form clusters of similar transcriptional activity along the chromosome. When modeled as a one-dimensional spatial series, the expression level of genes on the same chromosome frequently exhibit significant spatial correlation, reflecting spatial patterns in transcription. By modeling these spatial correlations, we can obtain improved estimates of transcript levels. Here, we demonstrate the existence of spatial correlations in transcriptional activity in the Escherichia coli (E. coli) chromosome across more than 50 experimental conditions. Based on this finding, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model that borrows information from neighboring genes to improve the estimation of the expression level of a given gene and hence the detection of DE genes. Furthermore, we extend the model to account for the circular structure of E. coli chromosome and the intergenetic distance between gene neighbors. The simulation studies and analysis of real data examples in E. coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that the proposed method outperforms the commonly used significant analysis of microarray (SAM) t-statistic in detecting DE genes.
Repeated exposure to cocaine causes sensitized behavioral responses and increased dendritic spines on medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We find that cocaine regulates myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors to control these two processes in vivo. Cocaine suppresses striatal MEF2 activity in part through a mechanism involving cAMP, the regulator of calmodulin signaling (RCS), and calcineurin. We show that reducing MEF2 activity in the NAc in vivo is required for the cocaine-induced increases in dendritic spine density. Surprisingly, we find that increasing MEF2 activity in the NAc, which blocks the cocaine-induced increase in dendritic spine density, enhances sensitized behavioral responses to cocaine. Together, our findings implicate MEF2 as a key regulator of structural synapse plasticity and sensitized responses to cocaine and suggest that reducing MEF2 activity (and increasing spine density) in NAc may be a compensatory mechanism to limit long-lasting maladaptive behavioral responses to cocaine.
Despite the tremendous growth of microarray usage in scientific studies, there is a lack of standards for background correction methodologies, especially in single-color microarray platforms. Traditional background subtraction methods often generate negative signals and thus cause large amounts of data loss. Hence, some researchers prefer to avoid background corrections, which typically result in the underestimation of differential expression. Here, by utilizing nonspecific negative control features integrated into Illumina whole genome expression arrays, we have developed a method of model-based background correction for BeadArrays (MBCB). We compared the MBCB with a method adapted from the Affymetrix robust multi-array analysis algorithm and with no background subtraction, using a mouse acute myeloid leukemia (AML) dataset. We demonstrated that differential expression ratios obtained by using the MBCB had the best correlation with quantitative RT-PCR. MBCB also achieved better sensitivity in detecting differentially expressed genes with biological significance. For example, we demonstrated that the differential regulation of Tnfr2, Ikk and NF-kappaB, the death receptor pathway, in the AML samples, could only be detected by using data after MBCB implementation. We conclude that MBCB is a robust background correction method that will lead to more precise determination of gene expression and better biological interpretation of Illumina BeadArray data.
TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major component of the inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions (FTLD-U). We studied TDP-43 pathology in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of autopsy brains from patients with FTLD-U (n = 68), dementia lacking distinctive histopathology (n = 4), other neurodegenerative diseases (n = 23), and controls (n = 12) using a sensitive immunohistochemistry protocol. Marked enhancement of staining of TDP-43-positive dystrophic neurites (DNs) was obtained, and we observed 2 previously unrecognized pathologic patterns (i.e. frequent long DNs in the CA1 region and frequent dot-like DNs in the neocortical layer 2) in 39% and 15% of the FTLD-U cases, respectively. Frequent long DNs, but not dot-like DNs, were significantly associated with progranulin mutations. Based on this evaluation, 4 FTLD-U cases showed no TDP-43 pathology and were reclassified as "FTLD-U, non-TDP-43 proteinopathy," and 3 cases of dementia lacking distinctive histopathology were reclassified as FTLD-U. Of the cases with other neurodegenerative diseases, 43% showed TDP-43 pathology in the hippocampus, but only 4% showed TDP-43 pathology in the frontal cortex. No TDP-43 pathology was seen in controls. These results indicate that the sensitivity of the TDP-43 immunohistochemistry method affects both the extent and type of abnormalities detected. Moreover, assessment of abnormalities in both the hippocampus and frontal cortex may be diagnostically important in FTLD-U.
Opiate dependence is a result of adaptive changes in signal transduction networks in several brain regions. Noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) have provided a useful model system in which to understand the molecular basis of these adaptive changes. One of most robust signaling adaptations to repeated morphine exposure in this brain region is upregulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. Earlier work revealed the selective induction of two calmodulin-dependent AC isoforms, AC1 and AC8, after chronic morphine, but their role in opiate dependence has remained unknown.
Whole cell recordings from LC slices, behavioral paradigms for dependence, and gene array technology have been used to dissect the role of AC1 and AC8 in chronic morphine responses.
Both AC1 and AC8 knockout mice exhibit reduced opiate dependence on the basis of attenuated withdrawal; however, partially distinct withdrawal symptoms were affected in the two lines. Loss of AC1 or AC8 also attenuated the electrophysiological effects of morphine on LC neurons: knockout of either cyclase attenuated the chronic morphine-induced enhancement of baseline firing rates as well as of regulation of neuronal firing by forskolin (an activator of ACs). The DNA microarray analysis revealed that both AC1 and AC8 affect gene regulation in the LC by chronic morphine and, in addition to common genes, each cyclase influences the expression of a distinct subset of genes.
Together, these findings provide fundamentally new insight into the molecular and cellular basis of opiate